Human Polyomaviruses (HPyVs) are small, non-enveloped double-stranded DNA viruses. They are found in urine, feces and wastewater as a result are used as sewage source tracking viruses and are emerging as potential environmentally related transmission of viral induced cancer. These viruses had previously been classified as belonging to a single family: Papovaviridae (Papillomaviruses, Polyomaviruses and Vacuolating Simian Virus 40). In 2002 however, the International Committee of Viruses Taxonomy decided that enough evidence had been published to warrant the division of the Papovaviridae family into two families: Papillomaviridae and Polyomaviridae. Since then, the classification of both families has been evolving constantly due to an explosion of newly discovered viruses by innovative molecular detection methods.