Viral pathogen reduction and survival in conventional activated sludge without disinfection

Table: 

Virus

Influent

Effluent

Log10 Reduction

Final Sludge

Adenovirusa,b,d

2.6E+05 to 2.8E+06

1.0E+03 to 4.4E+04

1.77

Contaminated

Enterovirusa,c

4.6E+03 to 9.4E+04

3.0E+01 to 1.3E+03

1.85 to 2.44

Contaminated

Norovirs GI & GIIa,b,d

6.5E+02 to 2.2E+08

1.8E+02 to 1.2E+04

0.80 to 0.92

Contaminated

aSources: Ayed et al., 2009, Flannery et al., 2012, Fong et al., 2010, Ramo et al., 2017, Rose et al., 1996, 2004, Tyagi et al., 2011; bCopies/L; cMPN/L; dVirus concentrations were measured by the qPCR molecular method and not by cell culture. The qPCR method identifies specific viruses but they do not have to be intact or infective to be detected (Francy et al., 2011) and log10 reduction may be underestimated. Fong et al. (2010) used qPCR for adenovirus although there are routine cell culture methods available; there are no known routine cell culture methods available for viable norovirus.

Table caption: 

Table A1b. Viral pathogen reduction and survival in conventional activated sludge without disinfection

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