Summary of viral pathogen reduction and survival in several poorly functioninga natural wastewater treatment system configurations. Number of systems in parentheses.

Table: 

Virus

Process

Influent

Effluent

Log10 Reduction

Final Sludge

Enterovirus

Waste Stabilization Ponds: F/Ma/M2 (1)

4.2E+04b

3.7E+01b

3.06

Contaminated

Enterovirus

UASB-WSP: UASB/F2/M (1)

6.2E+04b

9.1E+03b

0.83

Contaminated

Norovirus GId

Waste Stabilization Ponds: F/M1/M2 (1)

1.0E+06c

1.0E+06c

0

Contaminated

Norovirus GId

UASB-WSP: UASB/F2/M (1)

1.0E+04c

5.0E+05c

0

Contaminated

Rotavirusd

Waste Stabilization Ponds: F/Ma/M2 (1)

1.0E+06c

1.0E+06c

0

Contaminated

Rotavirusd

UASB-WSP: UASB/F2/M (1)

1.0E+05c

1.0E+04c

1.0

Contaminated

aPoorly functioning as a result of design, overloading or lack of operation and maintenance; bInfectious Units/L (IU/L); cCopies/L; dVirus concentrations were measured by the RT-qPCR molecular method and not by cell culture. The RT-qPCR method identifies specific viruses but they do not have to be intact or infective to be detected (Francy et al., 2011) and log10 reduction may be underestimated.

Table caption: 

Table 5b. Summary of viral pathogen reduction and survival in several poorly functioninga natural wastewater treatment system configurations. Number of systems in parentheses.

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